By Michael T. Murray, ND
Exercise is a critical component to a health promoting lifestyle and its beneficial impact for weight management is without question. A new study, however, shows that exercise influences a ...
SUNDAY, April 20, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The New Year's resolutions many made to get fit have stalled by now. And one expert thinks that's because many people set their goals too high.
"The point isn't to become ...
Posted February 3, 2015
By Michael T. Murray, ND
Oxygen, food, and water are the three main things we need to stay alive. If we're deprived of any of them for a significant period (not very long, when it comes ...
Nuts Linked to Lower Cases of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome
Consumption of tree nuts is associated with lower cases of obesity and metabolic syndrome, suggests a new study from Loma Linda University Health published in the peer-reviewed online science and medicine journal, ...
Posted July 14, 2014
SATURDAY, July 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- If you make exercise fun, you'll eat less after your workout, new research contends.
In one experiment, 56 adults were led on a 1.4-mile walk and ...
How You Digest Carbs May Influence Weight Gain, Study Says
THURSDAY, April 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The way your body digests carbohydrates may affect your risk for obesity, a new genetic study indicates.
Researchers focused on a gene called AMY1, which is responsible ...
Nutrition science is full of contradictions. Now there may be one more paradoxical dietary rule to keep you perpetually confused: full-fat diary products may help you keep the pounds off.
That's according to two ...
By Michael T. Murray, ND
Could weight loss be as simple as taking the right probiotic supplement? Based upon a growing body of evidence, the answer is a definite YES!
The term probiotic is used to describe the ...
Studies show that eating a proper breakfast is one of the most positive things you can do if you are trying to lose weight.
According to ACE fitness, breakfast skippers tend to gain weight. A balanced breakfast ...
Any Exercise Is Good, But Higher-Intensity May Be Better
Posted March 4, 2015
By Amy Norton
MONDAY, March 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For people who are obese and sedentary, any exercise can help trim belly fat, but it may take a bit more effort ...
Posted September 27, 2014
THURSDAY, Sept. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Can't resist that fat-filled goodie? You can blame it on a brain lapse.
Giving in to cravings for high-calorie junk food is associated with ...
Most Americans Have Access to 'Exercise Opportunities,' Study Finds
Posted January 24, 2014
By Kathleen Doheny
THURSDAY, Jan. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More than three-quarters of Americans live close to at least one park or recreational facility, giving ...
Kristy Eppley Rupon
Working out during the work day can be a challenge. But with children and other commitments, it's the only time many people can find to fit fitness into their schedules. Anne Wright, ...
Simply Increasing The Intake Of Green Leafy Vegetables Promotes Weight Loss
By Michael T. Murray, ND
Let's face it, most Americans are overfed, but undernourished. It is entirely possible that one of the contributing factors to the obesity epidemic is actually a shortage of the various ...
Researchers have found that certain probiotics could help women lose weight and keep it off.
Studies have already demonstrated that the intestinal flora of obese individuals differs from that of thin people.
No Snacking During Mid-Morning Leads to Better Weight Loss
WebMD Health News Journalist, Denise Mann reports new findings from a recent published study in the December issue of the Journal of American Dietetic Association. The study titled, “Associations between Snacking and ...
With Healthy Foods, Taste Matters, Researchers Say
Posted January 26, 2015
FRIDAY, Jan. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Taste exerts the biggest influence on people's food choices and many believe that healthy foods don't taste good, researchers report.
At the 2011 American Dietetic Association’s Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo, Andrea Carrothers, MS, RD, Nutrition Communications Manager at WhiteWave Foods (the maker of Silk) presented Soy Myths Busted. ...
Posted July 27, 2014
(HealthDay News) -- Finding ways to exercise at work can save you time and help make sure you get enough physical activity.
The American Council on Exercise offers these tips to help you ...
A Great Strategy for Weight Loss: Use a Smaller Plate
One of the key reasons why the average American eats more than 500 calories per day in 2013 than in 1970 is increased portion sizes. For baby boomers it is really obvious when they think back to the size of popcorn ...
By Catherine de Lange
The latest government guidelines prescribe weekly weight training for all. Is it all strength and no cardio?
Not so. "Lifting weights doesn't conjure up images of something that would ...
Does High-Fructose Corn Syrup Make People Hungrier?
Posted December 11, 2014
By Alan Mozes
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Fructose -- a kind of sugar found in a wide variety of foods and beverages -- may encourage overeating, ...
Frequent Dining Out Might Widen Your Waistline, Study Finds
Posted October 21, 2014
FRIDAY, Oct. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Love to dine out? You could be at higher risk for becoming overweight and having poorer cholesterol levels than people who prefer to eat at home, a ...
The health benefits of spinach abound—it’s an excellent source of vitamins K, A, C, E, and B6 and the minerals manganese, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper; it contains more than a dozen different flavonoid compounds ...
Low-Carb Beats Low-Fat for Weight Loss, Heart Health: Study
Posted September 2, 2014
By Amy Norton
MONDAY, Sept. 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- For people who want to lose weight and boost their heart health, cutting down on carbohydrates may work ...
Comprised of around 240 species of herbs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), Stevia can be found growing wild in South America and southwestern regions of North America. It's believed to have first been discovered by ...
Dieters May Be Thwarted by Absence of Healthy Foods
Posted October 20, 2014
SATURDAY, Oct. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Even determined dieters can fail if they don't have a good selection of healthy foods nearby, researchers say.
Their new study included 240 ...
Posted December 27, 2014
THURSDAY, Dec. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Overeating is common during the holidays, but there are strategies that can help you eat in moderation, an expert says.
"Don't arrive at a ...
Posted July 31, 2014
Not all fat in the human body is the same. One of the major differentiators is based upon the concentration of mitochondria -- the energy producing compartments of cells. When there are a lot ...
Posted December 24, 2014
By Natural Vitality Living
Regardless of where you work, chances are it's an easy place to be tempted by foods that don't jibe with your eating goals. Sure, a treat every now and again ...
Posted July 11, 2014
(HealthDay News) -- Along with calculating your body-mass index, measuring your waist is a good way to determine if you're at a healthy weight.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
By Serena Gordon
WEDNESDAY, April 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Spending time in the bright morning light may help you slim down, new research suggests.
The small study found that people ...
(HealthDay News) -- If you're one of the many Americans who plan to lose weight this year, there are a number of things you can do to improve your chances of success, an expert says.
"It should be clear by now that ...
Nearly 1 in 5 Americans Drinks at Least 1 Soda a Day: CDC
Posted August 16, 2014
By E.J. Mundell
THURSDAY, Aug. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new survey of American adults across 18 states finds 17 percent drinking at least one sugary soda per ...
Posted August 21, 2014
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 20, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Leaving the car at home and getting to work by walking, cycling or public transit is good for your health, a new study indicates.
By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week -- Girls between 9 and 12 years of age with higher-than-average levels of bisphenol-A (BPA) in their urine had double the risk of being obese than ...
Ioannides-Demos L, Proietto J, et al. Safety of drug therapies used for weight loss and treatment of obesity. Drug Saf. 2006;29(4):277-302.
Kral, J.G. Surgical Treatment of Obesity. In Handbook of Obesity, ed. Bray, G.A., Bouchard, C., James, W.P.T. New York. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Shekelle P, Morton, S., Maglione M, et al. Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance Enhancement: Clinical Efficacy and Side Effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 76, Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center, RAND.
Ephedrine: Since March 2004, the sale of all products containing ephedra in the United States has been banned. Other names of ephedrine are ephedra, ephedrinum, and ma huang.
A study published in the February 2003 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine found that ephedra supplements make up only one percent of all dietary supplement sales, but account for 64 percent of adverse effects associated with dietary supplements.
A case-control study published in a 1993 issue of Neurology concluded that the rate of hemorrhagic (bleeding) strokes among ephedra-users was significantly higher than among nonusers, for people taking doses above 32 milligrams a day. According to the FDA, many ephedra-containing dietary supplement labels recommend that users take up to 100mg of ephedra daily.
Fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) were voluntarily removed from the market in 1997. These two medications were shown to be associated with a rare but very serious and potentially fatal disorder known as primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), a disease of the lungs. Forty-five percent of patients with PPH die within four years of diagnosis.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a synthetic sympathomimetic amine structurally similar to pressor amines (i.e., epinephrine, phenylephrine, and ephedrine) and central nervous system stimulants (i.e., ephedrine, amphetamine). It is a common ingredient in cough-cold remedies and appetite suppressants. A study reports that taking PPA increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding into the brain or into tissue surrounding the brain) in women. Men may also be at risk but no data's available. Although the risk of hemorrhagic stroke is very low, FDA recommends that consumer should not use any products that contain PPA, and also manufacturer either reformulated or recalled all the medications that contain PPA.
General safety concerns: Most side effects of the medications that are approved by FDA are mild and diminish as treatment continues. Rarely, serious and even fatal outcomes have been reported. Medications that affect catecholamine levels, such as phentermine and dietylpropion may cause symptoms of sleeplessness, nervousness.
Gastric bypass surgery is the most common weight loss surgery which uses bands or staples to create food intake restriction. The bands or staples are surgically placed near the top of the stomach to section off a small portion that is often called a stomach pouch. A small outlet, about the size of a pencil eraser, is left at the bottom of the stomach pouch. Since the outlet is small, food stays in the pouch longer and you also feel full for a longer time.
This surgery is often performed in those who have a BMI ?40 (extremely obese) or BMI between 35 and 39.9 and with weight related health problems such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Surgical candidates go through an extensive screening process. Not everyone who meets the criteria for the surgery is psychologically or medically ready for the surgical procedure. A team of professionals, including a physician, dietitian, psychologist and surgeon, evaluate whether the surgery is appropriate. Following surgery, physical, nutritional and metabolic counseling are given to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Lifelong use of nutritional supplements such as multivitamins, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium is recommended.
Researchers have found greater weight loss in gastric bypass (93.3 pounds) compared to gastroplasty (67 pounds) after one year. Over two years, gastric bypass surgery patients have been shown to lose two-thirds of excess weight. The success rate for weight loss for RGB is 68 to 72% of excess body weight over a three-year period, and 75% for BPD. After five years, the average excess weight loss from gastric bypass surgery ranges from 48 to 74%.
The improvements observed in type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol may significantly decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery compared with those treated through other means. Gastric bypass surgery has also shown to improve mobility and quality of life for people who are severely overweight.
A risk of death has been associated with gastric bypass surgery. The risk varies depending on age, general health and other medical conditions. Talk to your doctor about the exact level of risk gastric bypass surgery may pose for you.
Blood clots in the legs are more likely to occur in very overweight people. Blood clots can be dangerous. In some cases, they travel to the lungs and lodge in the lungs' arteries causing a pulmonary embolism, a serious condition that damages lung tissue and can lead to death. Walking and using leg wraps that apply intermittent pressure to the leg can help reduce this risk of blood clots in the legs.
Leaking at one of the staple lines in the stomach has occurred and can be treated with antibiotics. Most cases heal with time. Sometimes, the leak can be serious enough to require emergency surgery.
Excess weight places extra stress on the chest cavity and lungs. This means a higher risk of developing pneumonia after the surgery.
Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine has occurred. This rare complication may require either an outpatient procedure to pass a tube through your mouth to widen (dilate) the narrowed opening or corrective surgery.
Gastric bypass can also cause dumping syndrome, a condition where stomach contents move too quickly through the small intestine causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness and sweating.
Other common complications include vitamin and mineral deficiency, dehydration, gallstones, bleeding stomach ulcer, hernia at the incision site, and intolerance to certain foods.
Adjustable gastric banding: The surgeon uses an inflatable band to partition the stomach into two parts. He or she then wraps the band around the upper part of your stomach and pulls it tight, like a belt, creating a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is designed to stay in place indefinitely. But it can be adjusted or surgically removed if necessary. Most surgeons perform this operation using a laparoscope.
Biliopancreatic diversion: In this procedure, a portion of your stomach is removed. The remaining pouch is connected directly to your small intestine, but completely bypasses your duodenum and jejunum where most nutrient absorption takes place. This weight-loss surgery offers sustained weight loss, but it presents a greater risk of malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies and requires close monitoring.
Jaw wiring: This is a form of food intake restriction for temporary use in patients without respiratory problems. It can be effective for short-term weight loss. However, weight regain occurs soon after the wires are removed.
Liposuction: This is the most frequent cosmetic operation in the United States in which fat tissue is removed. Relatively small amounts of total body fat can be removed safely, however, and little weight is lost.
Vertical banded gastroplasty: This operation divides the stomach into two parts - limiting space for food and forcing you to eat less. There is no bypass. Using a surgical stapler, the surgeon divides your stomach into upper and lower sections. The upper pouch is small and empties into the lower pouch (the rest of the stomach). Surgeons use this procedure less commonly than gastric bypass, partly because it does not lead to adequate long-term weight loss.
Appetite suppressants are agents that promote weight loss by decreasing appetite or increasing the sensation of fullness. About one-quarter of the U.S. population can be considered obese (BMI of >30). Four million of these people may be classified as morbidly obese (BMI of >40). Obesity is associated with increased risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
The use of appetite suppressant medications to treat obesity in combination with physical activity and diet modification is often recommended to lose and maintain weight successfully over the long term.
Several prescription medications are currently approved for treatment of obesity. In general, the effects of these medications are modest, leading to an average initial weight loss of between 5 and 22 pounds; though studies show that weight returns after cessation of the drugs. There is considerable individual difference in response to these medications; some people experience greater weight loss than others.
Short-term use of appetite suppressant medications has been shown to modestly reduce health risks for obese individuals. Studies have found that these medications can lower blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood fats (triglycerides), and decrease insulin resistance (the body's ability to utilize blood sugar). Long-term studies need to be conducted to determine if weight loss assisted by appetite suppressant medications can improve health long-term.
Weight loss tends to be greatest during the first few weeks or months of treatment, leveling off after about six months. Research suggests that if a patient does not lose at least four pounds during the first four weeks on a particular medication, that medication is unlikely to be effective over the long run.
Short-term use (few weeks to few months): Examples include diethylpropion (Tenuate®), and phentermine (Adipex-P®).
The mechanism of action of diethylpropion and phentermine appears to be secondary to CNS (central nervous system) effects, specifically stimulation of the hypothalamus to release catecholamines into the central nervous system. Appetite suppressing effects are mediated via norepinephrine and dopamine metabolism.
Long-term use (up to one year or more): Examples include orlistat (Xenical®) and sibutramine (Meridia®).
Orlistat is the first prescription treatment for obesity that does not act as an appetite suppressant. It works by interfering with the action of gastrointestinal (GI) lipase in the GI tract. As a result of this mechanism of action, 30% of ingested dietary fat is not absorbed.
Sibutramine and its two primary metabolites also appear to be secondary to CNS effects by blocking the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
OTC (over-the-counter): It is believed that "P57" molecule in Hoodia mimics the effect that glucose has on your brain, telling part of your brain (the hypothalamus) that you feel full. Consequently, you have no desire to eat. However current available evidence on hoodia's effectiveness and safety is lacking.
Dietrine Carb Blocker with Phase 2®: An ingredient extracted from white kidney beans is thought toneutralize the digestive enzyme alpha amylase before it can convert starch into glucose and then fat.
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.