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Jiaogulan(Gynostemma pentaphyllum)

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Also listed as: Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Amachazuru, Cucurbitaceae (family), dammarane-type saponins, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, gypenoside XLIX, gypenosides, miracle grass, southern ginseng, Vitis pentaphyllum, xianxao.

Background
  • Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) is best known as a traditional Chinese medicine herb. In the Guizhou Province, it is used as an anti-aging herb and many people who drink jiaogulan tea reach very old age. However, no link between jiaogulan tea and living many years has been scientifically proven.
  • Jioagulan has shown some promise for treating cancer. Jiaogulan may also reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, although more studies are needed in both of these areas before a recommendation can be made.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Preliminary evidence indicates that gypenosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum decrease cancer cell viability, arrest the cell cycle, and induce apoptosis (cell death) in human cancer cells. Immune function in cancer patients has also been studied. Additional study is needed in this area.

C


Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract may be helpful for those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease when combined with other treatment. More research is needed in this area.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Aging, anticoagulant (blood thinner), anti-inflammatory, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), bleeding (subarachnoid hemorrhage), diabetes, hepatoprotection (liver protection), hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol).

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

  • There is no proven effective dose for jiaogulan, although 80 milliliters of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extraction has been taken for four months in conjunction with a controlled diet for fatty liver.

Children (younger than 18 years):

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for jiaogulan in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) or its constituents.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Currently, there is not enough available evidence about the side effects of jiaogulan. Nonetheless, use cautiously in patients with hematologic (blood) conditions or taking anticoagulants or anti-platelet agents (blood thinners). Also, use cautiously in patients with diabetes as Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease insulin levels and insulin index scores.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Jiaogulan is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Although not well studied in humans, gypenosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum may have anticancer effects. Caution is advised when taking jiaogulan with other anticancer agents.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease serum triglyceride levels. Thus, caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with other cholesterol-lowering agents.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation, an important inflammatory factor. Caution is advised in patients taking anti-inflammatory agents.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. However, current evidence is mixed. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with any potentially liver-damaging (hepatotoxic) agents.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease insulin levels and insulin index scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with diabetes agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Although not well studied in humans, gypenosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum may have anticancer effects. Caution is advised when taking jiaogulan with other herbs or supplements that have potential anticancer effects.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease serum triglyceride levels. Thus, caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with other cholesterol-lowering herbs or supplements, such as red yeast rice.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation, an important inflammatory factor. Caution is advised in patients taking anti-inflammatory herbs or supplements.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. However, current evidence is mixed. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with any potentially liver-damaging (hepatotoxic) herbs or supplements.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum may decrease insulin levels and insulin index scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Caution is advised when combining jiaogulan with herbs or supplements taken to control blood sugar.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Chen JC, Chung JG, Chen LD. Gypenoside induces apoptosis in human Hep3B and HA22T tumour cells. Cytobios 1999;100(393):37-48.
  2. Chen JC, Lu KW, Lee JH, et al. Gypenosides induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathways and activation of caspase-3. Anticancer Res 2006;26(6B):4313-4326.
  3. Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med 2006;12(3):34-39.
  4. Han MQ, Liu JX, Gao H. [Effects of 24 Chinese medicinal herbs on nucleic acid, protein and cell cycle of human lung adenocarcinoma cell]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1995;15(3):147-149.
  5. Hou J, Liu S, Ma Z, et al. Effects of gynostemma pentaphyllum makino on the immunological function of cancer patients. J.Tradit.Chin Med. 1991;11(1):47-52.
  6. Huang TH, Li Y, Razmovski-Naumovski V, et al. Gypenoside XLIX isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activation via a PPAR-alpha-dependent pathway. J Biomed Sci 2006;13(4):535-548.
  7. Huang TH, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Salam NK, et al. A novel LXR-alpha activator identified from the natural product Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Biochem Pharmacol 11-1-2005;70(9):1298-1308.
  8. Liu X, Ye W, Mo Z, et al. Three dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Planta Med 2005;71(9):880-884.
  9. Takagi J, Imada T, Kikuchi T, et al. A new platelet aggregation factor from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1985;33(12):5568-5571.
  10. Tan H, Liu ZL, Liu MJ. [Antithrombotic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1993;13(5):278-80, 261.
  11. Wang C, Zhao X, Mao S, et al. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China. Neurol.Res 2006;28(4):436-444.
  12. Wang QF, Chen JC, Hsieh SJ, et al. Regulation of Bcl-2 family molecules and activation of caspase cascade involved in gypenosides-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett 9-26-2002;183(2):169-178.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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