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Chrysin

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Also listed as: 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • 2'-Chlorochrysin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-iodochrysin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 6-deoxy-6-desmethyl-4-desdimethylamino-tetracycline, 7-(4"-O-acetyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 7-(6"-O-acetyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 8-bromo-5-hydroxy-7-methoxychrysin, acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, alcohols, alkaloids, almindelig passionsblomst (Danish), amino acids, apricot vine, Australian fever-tree, baical skullcap, Baikal skullcap, balm of Gilead, blå passionsblomma (Swedish), black poplar, blaue Passionsblume (German), blauwe passiebloem (Dutch), blue crown passionflower, blue passionflower, blue-crown passionflower, Calicotome villosa, carrot, Cerasus vulgaris Miller, cherry, chrisina (Portuguese - Brazil), Christ's thorn, Chrysanthemum morifolium, clock flower, clock plant, common skullcap, coumarins, crisina (Portuguese - Brazil), Daucus carota Linn., Daucus carota ssp. carota, dietary flavonoids, diethyl chrysin-7-yl phosphate, eastern white pine, Eriodictyon californicum (Hook. et Arn.) Torr., espina de Cristo (Spanish), észak-amerikai golgotavirág (Hunagarian), Eucalyptus globulus Labill., flavone X, flavonoid, fleischfarbene Passionsblume (German), fleur de la passion (French), flor de pasión (Spanish), flower of the five wounds, galangin flavanone, genet, hardy garden mum, honey, kärsimyskukka (Finnish), läkepassionsblomma (Swedish), Leiden Christi (German), lillikoi, Manzana de Mayo, maracuja (Spanish), maracujá (Portuguese - Brazil), maracujá-azul (Portuguese - Brazil), mayapple, maypop, maypop herb, maypop passionflower, meczennica krwista (Polish), Mother-of-God's Star, mucenka jedlá (Czech), mucenka modrá (Czech), Muttergottes-Schuzchen (German), oak-leaved geranium, pasiflora (Spanish), pasionaria (Spanish), pasjonsblomst (Norwegian), Passiflora caerulea, Passiflora coerulea L., Passiflora edulis, Passifloraincarnata, Passifloraincarnate, Passifloraceae (family), passiflore (French), passiflore sauvage (French), passion flower, passion vine, passionblomma (Swedish), passionflower, Passionsblume (German), passionsblomst (Danish), Passionskraut (German), Pelargonium quercifoleum, phenylbenzopyrones, phytoestrogens, Pinus strobus L., Populus balsamifera L., Populus balsamifera var. hortensis, Populus nigra L., Populus tacamahaca Mill., Populus tacamahacca Mill., propolis, Prunus cerasus L., punakas kannatuslill (Estonian), purple passionflower, Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Scutellaria galericulata L., Scutellaria macrantha Fisch., sinine kannatuslill (Estonian), Spartium junceum L., sugars, tetraethyl bis-phosphoric ester of chrysin, vill pasjonsblomst (Norwegian), wild passionflower, winterharte Passionsblume (German), yerba santa.
  • Combination products: ANDRO-6 (containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto).

Background
  • Chrysin is a flavonoid, a compound found in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids give plants their color and may have antibacterial effects.
  • Chrysin generally comes from passionflower (Passiflora incarnata and other Passiflora species) and is found in other plants, like yerba santa, Australian fever tree, eastern white pine, balm of Gilead, black poplar, Baikal skullcap, common skullcap, and genet (Spartium junceum L.), as well as in small amounts in honey and other bee products.
  • Research has found that chrysin may block aromatase, a compound that turns testosterone into estrogen. Because of this, it is believed that chrysin may help bodybuilders. Chrysin has also been studied for use in heart disease and cancer prevention and treatment. However, evidence is lacking, and more research is needed.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Antibacterial, anticoagulant (blood thinner), antidepressant, antiestrogen, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet (blood thinner), anxiety, atherosclerosis (clogged arteries), baldness, breast cancer, bodybuilding, cancer, cervical cancer, circulation improvement, connective tissue disorders, colorectal cancer, dental conditions, gout, heart disease, herpes simplex virus type 1, HIV/AIDS, hyperactivity (children), immunomodulation (affects the immune system), impotence, ischemia-reperfusion injury protection (tissue damage), jaundice, leukemia, lung cancer, lymphoma, menstrual disorders, muscle relaxant, osteoporosis, pain relief, prostate cancer, sedative, seizures, skin damage caused by the sun, sleep aid, stroke prevention, uterine cancer.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • To improve exercise performance, a combination product (ANDRO-6; containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto) has been taken by mouth daily for eight weeks.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • Chrysin has been taken by mouth to control hyperactivity and anxiety. However, information on dosing is not available.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to chrysin, Passiflora incarnata, or other members of the Passiflora family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Chrysin is considered safe when used daily in a combination product (ANDRO-6; containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto) for eight weeks. Chrysin has not been linked to any significantly negative side effects.
  • Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs or herbs and supplements that lower blood pressure.
  • Use cautiously in people receiving hormonal therapy and in those taking CYP1A substrates (drugs broken down by the liver), immunosuppressants, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 substrates, and vasodilators (blood vessel wideners).
  • Use cautiously in people with compromised immune systems.
  • Use cautiously in pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to a lack of safety data.
  • Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to chrysin, Passiflora incarnata, or other members of the Passiflora family.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is a lack of scientific evidence on the use of chrysin during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that lower blood pressure.
  • Chrysin may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Chrysin may also react with agents that may increase sensitivity to light, agents that may lower seizure threshold, agents that may treat cancer, antibiotics, and hormonal agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Chrysin may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the P450 system.
  • Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.
  • Chrysin may react with antibacterials, herbs and supplements that my increase sensitivity to light, herbs and supplements that may treat cancer, hormonal herbs and supplements, resveratrol, and seizure threshold-lowering herbs and supplements.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Collins BM, McLachlan JA, Arnold SF. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phytochemicals with the human estrogen receptor expressed in yeast. Steroids 1997;62(4):365-372.
  2. Galijatovic A, Otake Y, Walle UK, et al. Extensive metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin by human Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells. Xenobiotica 1999;29(12):1241-1256.
  3. Gopalakrishnan A, Xu CJ, Nair SS, et al. Modulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK pathway by flavonoids in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2006;29(8):633-644.
  4. Han DH, Denison MS, Tachibana H, et al. Relationship between estrogen receptor-binding and estrogenic activities of environmental estrogens and suppression by flavonoids. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2002;66(7):1479-1487.
  5. Harris GK, Qian Y, Leonard SS, et al. Luteolin and chrysin differentially inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression and scavenge reactive oxygen species but similarly inhibit prostaglandin-E2 formation in RAW 264.7 cells. J Nutr 2006;136(6):1517-1521.
  6. Hougee S, Sanders A, Faber J, et al. Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-stimulated PBMC upon in vitro incubation with the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin or chrysin, due to selective elimination of monocytes/macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 1-15-2005;69(2):241-248.
  7. Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, et al. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(2):85-92.
  8. Lotito SB, Frei B. Dietary flavonoids attenuate tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. Structure-function relationships and activity after first pass metabolism. J Biol Chem 12-1-2006;281(48):37102-37110.
  9. Lyu SY, Rhim JY, Park WB. Antiherpetic activities of flavonoids against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28(11):1293-1301.
  10. Medina JH, Paladini AC, Wolfman C, et al. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem Pharmacol 11-15-1990;40(10):2227-2231.
  11. O'Leary KA, de Pascual-Tereasa S, Needs PW, et al. Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. Mutat.Res 7-13-2004;551(1-2):245-254.
  12. Sanderson JT, Hordijk J, Denison MS, et al. Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by natural and synthetic flavonoid compounds in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol Sci 2004;82(1):70-79.
  13. Uzel A, Sorkun K, Oncag O, et al. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples. Microbiol.Res 2005;160(2):189-195.
  14. Walle T, Otake Y, Brubaker JA, et al. Disposition and metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin in normal volunteers. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2001;51(2):143-146.
  15. Woodman OL, Chan EC. Vascular and anti-oxidant actions of flavonols and flavones. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31(11):786-790.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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