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Alpinia spp.



Interactions

Alpinia/Drug Interactions:
  • Alzheimer's agentsAlzheimer's agents: In vitro, Alpinia galanga extract inhibited the activation of THP-1 cells and reduced inflammation-related gene expression, which the investigators stated may be useful in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (44). Also, treatment with Alpinia oxyphylla fruits extract showed a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro (30).
  • AntacidsAntacids: Theoretically, due to reports that alpinia increases stomach acid, alpinia might decrease the effectiveness of antacids (38).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: In laboratory research, Alpinia galanga (6) and Alpinia speciosa (7) demonstrated antibacterial effects.
  • Anticoagulants/antiplateletsAnticoagulants/antiplatelets: According to a review, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), a combination product containing a mixture of Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera, has been used both traditionally and in modern medicine to stop bleeding that was uncontrolled with conventional anti-hemorrhagic agents (14). According to a case report, this product has been applied endoscopically to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding (45). In other case reports, ABS spray effectively treated excessive bleeding when used during dental surgery in four patients with increased bleeding tendencies due to von Willebrand Disease, liver failure, or mitral valve replacement (46). In a clinical trial, this agent reduced the amount of bleeding that occurred during episiotomy repair (47). However, it is unclear if the anti-hemorrhagic effect of ABS spray was due to the Alpinia officinarum constituent. In vitro, Alpinia mutica Roxb. demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against platelet-activating factor (39).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: One animal study reported that alpinia decreased glucose concentrations (24). Theoretically, an additive effect with hyperglycemic drugs may occur.
  • AntiemeticsAntiemetics: In animal research, constituents of Alpinia officinarum showed antiemetic activity in a copper sulfate induced emesis assay (25).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, the chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga had pronounced antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum gypseum, but exhibited weak activity against Candida albicans (8).
  • Antihemorrhage agentsAntihemorrhage agents: According to a review, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), a combination product containing a mixture of Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera, has been used both traditionally and in modern medicine to stop bleeding that was uncontrolled with conventional anti-hemorrhagic agents (14). According to a case report, this product has been applied endoscopically to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding (45). In other case reports, ABS spray effectively treated excessive bleeding when used during dental surgery in four patients with increased bleeding tendencies due to von Willebrand Disease, liver failure, or mitral valve replacement (46). In a clinical trial, this agent reduced the amount of bleeding that occurred during episiotomy repair (47). However, it is unclear if the anti-hemorrhagic effect of ABS spray was due to the Alpinia officinarum constituent. In vitro, Alpinia mutica Roxb. demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against platelet-activating factor (39).
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: The 80% aqueous acetone extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga was found to inhibit release of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-mediated degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells (2).
  • Antihypertensive drugsAntihypertensive drugs: Small reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been associated with the use of alpinia in human and animal studies (37; 35; 36). Theoretically, additive effects may occur.
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: The gingerols and diaryheptanoids constituents of alpinia have been reported to be potent inhibitors of PG synthetase (prostaglandin biosynthesizing enzyme) (13). Diarylheptanoids contained in Alpinia oxyphylla have been reported to down-regulate cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS expression through suppression of NF-kappaB activation in the TPA-treated mouse skin (48).
  • AntimicrobialsAntimicrobials: In vitro, Alpinia officinarum and Alpinia oxyphylla showed broad antimicrobial activity (5).
  • Antitumor agentsAntitumor agents: A variety of Alpinia species have demonstrated anti-tumor properties that can contribute to chemopreventive potential (12; 20; 49; 50; 51; 21).
  • AntiparkinsoniansAntiparkinsonians: According to a review, various herbal medicines and formulations, including some formulations that contain species of Alpinia, have been shown to modulate events or signaling pathways related to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis (33).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: Pruritus occurred when rats were given 10-30mg/kg of Alpinia speciosa (37).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: A slight increase in diuresis was observed in two human studies following the administration of Alpinia speciosa (35; 36). However, there is contradictory pharmacologic evidence suggesting alpinia's anti-diuresis effects as well (23).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In animal research, constituents from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga demonstrated gastroprotective effects (52). However, in human research, mild gastrointestinal complaints and increased urine production have been reported (41; 35; 36).
  • H2 antagonistsH2 antagonists: Theoretically, due to reports that alpinia increases stomach acid, alpinia might decrease the effectiveness of H2-blockers (38).
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: Alpinia galanga L. showed a marked stimulating effect on the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and increased the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and spleen cells of mice (26).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: Alpinia galanga L. showed a marked stimulating effect on the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and increased the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and spleen cells of mice (26).
  • InsecticidesInsecticides: Alpinia oxyphylla was found to have an insecticidal activity against larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (28; 29).
  • Leukotriene modifiersLeukotriene modifiers: The structures of the gingerol and diaryheptanoid constituents indicate they may be active against 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme involved in leukotriene biosynthesis (1).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In vitro, Alpinia galanga extract inhibited the activation of THP-1 cells and reduced inflammation-related gene expression, which the investigators stated may be useful in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (44). Also, treatment with Alpinia oxyphylla fruits extract showed a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro (30).
  • Pain relieversPain relievers: Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia zerumbet have demonstrated marked dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. This effect was mediated by opioid mechanisms (31; 32).
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): Theoretically, due to reports that alpinia increases stomach acid, alpinia might decrease the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (38).
  • SedativesSedatives: Diminished and abnormally slow movements, as well as prolonged sleep time, were observed in rats given Alpinia speciosa (37).
  • VasoconstrictorsVasoconstrictors: In vitro and in animal research, Alpinia zerumbet exhibited vasodilator effects (9; 11).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In vitro and in animal research, Alpinia zerumbet exhibited vasodilator effects (9; 11).

Alpinia/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Alzheimer's agentsAlzheimer's agents: In vitro, Alpinia galanga extract inhibited the activation of THP-1 cells and reduced inflammation-related gene expression, which the investigators stated may be useful in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (44). Also, treatment with Alpinia oxyphylla fruits extract showed a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro (30).
  • AntacidsAntacids: Theoretically, due to reports that alpinia increases stomach acid, alpinia might decrease the effectiveness of antacids (38).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: In laboratory research, Alpinia galanga (6) and Alpinia speciosa (7) demonstrated antibacterial effects.
  • Anticoagulants/antiplateletsAnticoagulants/antiplatelets: According to a review, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), a combination product containing a mixture of Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera, has been used both traditionally and in modern medicine to stop bleeding that was uncontrolled with conventional anti-hemorrhagic agents (14). According to a case report, this product has been applied endoscopically to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding (45). In other case reports, ABS spray effectively treated excessive bleeding when used during dental surgery in four patients with increased bleeding tendencies due to von Willebrand Disease, liver failure, or mitral valve replacement (46). In a clinical trial, this agent reduced the amount of bleeding that occurred during episiotomy repair (47). However, it is unclear if the anti-hemorrhagic effect of ABS spray was due to the Alpinia officinarum constituent. In vitro, Alpinia mutica Roxb. demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against platelet-activating factor (39).
  • AntiemeticsAntiemetics: In animal research, constituents of Alpinia officinarum showed antiemetic activity in a copper sulfate induced emesis assay (25).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, the chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga had pronounced antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum gypseum, but exhibited weak activity against Candida albicans (8).
  • Antihemorrhage agentsAntihemorrhage agents: According to a review, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), a combination product containing a mixture of Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera, has been used both traditionally and in modern medicine to stop bleeding that was uncontrolled with conventional anti-hemorrhagic agents (14). According to a case report, this product has been applied endoscopically to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding (45). In other case reports, ABS spray effectively treated excessive bleeding when used during dental surgery in four patients with increased bleeding tendencies due to von Willebrand Disease, liver failure, or mitral valve replacement (46). In a clinical trial, this agent reduced the amount of bleeding that occurred during episiotomy repair (47). However, it is unclear if the anti-hemorrhagic effect of ABS spray was due to the Alpinia officinarum constituent. In vitro, Alpinia mutica Roxb. demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against platelet-activating factor (39).
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: The 80% aqueous acetone extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga was found to inhibit release of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-mediated degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells (2).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: The gingerols and diaryheptanoids constituents of alpinia have been reported to be potent inhibitors of PG synthetase (prostaglandin biosynthesizing enzyme) (13). Diarylheptanoids contained in Alpinia oxyphylla have been reported to down-regulate cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS expression through suppression of NF-kappaB activation in the TPA-treated mouse skin (48).
  • AntimicrobialsAntimicrobials: In vitro, Alpinia officinarum and Alpinia oxyphylla showed broad antimicrobial activity (5).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In vitro, essential oil from Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet protected cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from injury caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), as well as increasing levels of reduced glutathione and reducing malondialdehyde contents (15).
  • Antitumor agentsAntitumor agents: A variety of Alpinia species have demonstrated anti-tumor properties that can contribute to chemopreventive potential (12; 20; 49; 50; 51; 21).
  • AntiparkinsoniansAntiparkinsonians: According to a review, various herbal medicines and formulations, including some formulations that contain species of Alpinia, have been shown to modulate events and/or signaling pathways related to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis (33).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: Pruritus occurred when rats were given 10-30mg/kg of Alpinia speciosa (37).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: A slight increase in diuresis was observed in two human studies following the administration of Alpinia speciosa (35; 36). However, there is contradictory pharmacologic evidence suggesting alpinia's anti-diuresis effects as well (23).
  • Gastric acid-reducing agentsGastric acid-reducing agents: Theoretically, due to reports that alpinia increases stomach acid, alpinia might decrease the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (38).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In animal research, constituents from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga demonstrated gastroprotective effects (52). However, in human research, mild gastrointestinal complaints and increased urine production have been reported (41; 35; 36).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: One animal study reported that alpinia decreased glucose concentrations (24). Theoretically, an additive effect with hyperglycemic herbs may occur.
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: Small reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been associated with the use of alpinia in human and animal studies (37; 35; 36). Theoretically, additive effects may occur.
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: Alpinia galanga L. showed a marked stimulating effect on the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and increased the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and spleen cells of mice (26).
  • InsecticidesInsecticides: Alpinia oxyphylla was found to have an insecticidal activity against larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (28; 29).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In vitro, Alpinia galanga extract inhibited the activation of THP-1 cells and reduced inflammation-related gene expression, which the investigators stated may be useful in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (44). Also, treatment with Alpinia oxyphylla fruits extract showed a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro (30).
  • Pain relieversPain relievers: Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia zerumbet have demonstrated marked dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. This effect was mediated by opioid mechanisms (31; 32).
  • SedativesSedatives: Diminished and abnormally slow movements, as well as prolonged sleep time, were observed in rats given Alpinia speciosa (37).
  • VasoconstrictorsVasoconstrictors: In vitro and in animal research, Alpinia zerumbet exhibited vasodilator effects (9; 11).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In vitro and in animal research, Alpinia zerumbet exhibited vasodilator effects (9; 11).

Alpinia/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Alpinia/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: Small reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been associated with the use of alpinia in human and animal studies (37; 35; 36).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: According to a review, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), a combination product containing a mixture of Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera, has been used both traditionally and in modern medicine to stop bleeding that was uncontrolled with conventional anti-hemorrhagic agents (14). According to a case report, this product has been applied endoscopically to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding (45). In other case reports, ABS spray effectively treated excessive bleeding when used during dental surgery in four patients with increased bleeding tendencies due to von Willebrand Disease, liver failure, or mitral valve replacement (46). In a clinical trial, this agent reduced the amount of bleeding that occurred during episiotomy repair (47). However, it is unclear if the anti-hemorrhagic effect of ABS spray was due to the Alpinia officinarum constituent. In vitro, Alpinia mutica Roxb. demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against platelet-activating factor (39).
  • Red blood cell levelsRed blood cell levels: One animal study reported that alpinia elevated red blood cell levels (43).
  • Serum glucose levelsSerum glucose levels: One animal study reported that alpinia decreased glucose concentrations (24).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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