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Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC)



Interactions

AHCC/Drug Interactions:
  • Antianxiety agentsAntianxiety agents: In prostate cancer patients with high anxiety, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) has been shown to lower anxiety ratings after six months of treatment, as per the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (22).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: In animals, AHCC has been shown increase host survival (5; 6) and promote bacterial clearance (7; 6) in response to an infectious challenge from various bacterial strains, including Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (8; 5).
  • Anticancer agentsAnticancer agents: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of cisplatin (26; 77). In vitro, AHCC administered in conjunction with doxorubicin (Doxil®), a known chemotherapy agent, has demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects (65; 78). In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of sorafenib (79).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In a case study, AHCC normalized the abnormally low platelet count of a patient with symptomatic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (72).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In human research, AHCC decreased glycosylated hemoglobin and blood sugar levels (42).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In animals, AHCC has demonstrated antifungal effects against opportunistic infections by Candida albicans (8; 5; 9) and in cases of Candida vaginitis (10).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: AHCC has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in cells and animals (11), reportedly comparable to those of sulfasalazine (12). The observed anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC were reported as being additive in rats, when administered in combination with Bifidobacterium longum (BB536), a known gut prebiotic (80; 2).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In hypercholesterolemic prostate cancer patients, AHCC combined with genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP) decreased serum cholesterol levels (28). A similar cholesterol-lowering effect has also been seen in breast cancer patients, although statistical significance was lacking compared to controls (81).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to reduce the adverse effects and enhance the antitumor effects of established chemotherapy agents (82; 83), including cisplatin (26; 77), sorafenib (79), GCP (84; 85), and liposomal doxorubicin (i.e., Doxil®) (78; 65). In tumorigenic animals, the chemiluminescent activity of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and neutrophils was increased following the administration of AHCC alone (86) or in combination (57; 87).
  • AntiprotozoalsAntiprotozoals: In Trichinella spiralis-infected mice, AHCC alone or in combination with albendazole, a known anthelmintic agent, has been shown to reduce the percentage of parasitic adults on intestinal mucosa (17).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In animals, AHCC demonstrated various antiviral effects, including increased host survival, decreased infection severity, and shortened recovery time, against influenza A (H1N1, PR8) (18; 5; 19), bird flu (H5N1) (20; 21), and West Nile virus infection (23). In healthy humans, AHCC taken as an adjunct therapy to conventional influenza vaccination (FluShield) was shown to increase anti-influenza B, but not anti-influenza A titers compared to baseline (62). AHCC also selectively reduced hepatitis C viral RNA in hepatitis patients with genotype 3 (64) and reduced hepatitis B antigen levels when administered in combination with known antiviral agents, such as entecavir, tenofovir, or lamivudine (88).
  • CisplatinCisplatin: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of cisplatin (26; 77).
  • Cytochrome P450-modifying agentsCytochrome P450-modifying agents: In vitro and ex vivo research in hepatocytes has suggested that AHCC induces the CYP450 2D6 pathway (65; 66). According to study authors, interactions with other agents also metabolized via this enzyme system are therefore plausible, such as doxorubicin or ondansetron (65; 66).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In animal models of cancer, the coadministration of AHCC and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) demonstrated protective effects against Ara-C-induced alopecia (3; 89). In humans, mild itching has been reported following the use of AHCC (22).
  • Doxorubicin (Doxil®)Doxorubicin (Doxil®): In vitro, AHCC administered in conjunction with doxorubicin (Doxil®), a known chemotherapy agent, has demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects (65; 78).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In mice exposed to acute ischemia-reperfusion injury, AHCC has lowered indices of organ, mucosal, and ischemic injury (31; 32). In mice with intestinal candidiasis, AHCC activated intestinal mucosal immunity (90). In humans, mild, transient, and dose-related symptoms of nausea, diarrhea, and bloating have been reported following the use of AHCC (63; 22; 64).
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: In animals, AHCC has demonstrated liver protective effects against 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)-, methotrexate (MTX)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and carbon tetrachloride (CC14)-induced liver injury (3; 89; 91; 92). In humans with nonviral liver conditions, AHCC improved (decreased) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) liver function (73).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In preclinical and clinical research, AHCC modulated immunologic response (46; 47; 45; 48; 49; 50; 5; 7; 18; 23; 51; 52; 53; 24; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 62).
  • Osteoporosis drugsOsteoporosis drugs: During the in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration, AHCC has been shown to decrease both NO production and iNOS mRNA expression (29). Theoretically AHCC may interact with osteoporosis drugs.
  • Respiratory agentsRespiratory agents: In weaning calves, the coadministration of AHCC and Nucleoforce® (a nucleotide formula derived from yeast) decreased both the incidence of animals affected by respiratory problems and the total number of respiratory cases seen, compared to nontreated calves (33).
  • SorafenibSorafenib: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of sorafenib (79).
  • Weight loss agentsWeight loss agents: According to secondary sources, AHCC has been shown to decrease fat in the peritoneal cavity of Enterococcus faecalis-exposed mice and alter fat metabolism.

AHCC/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Antianxiety agentsAntianxiety agents: In prostate cancer patients with high anxiety, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) has been shown to lower anxiety ratings after six months of treatment, as per the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (22).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: In animals, AHCC has been shown increase host survival(5; 6) and promote bacterial clearance (7; 6) in response to an infectious challenge from various bacterial strains, including Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (8; 5).
  • Anticancer agentsAnticancer agents: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of cisplatin (26; 77). In vitro, AHCC administered in conjunction with doxorubicin (Doxil®), a known chemotherapy agent, has demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects (65; 78). In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of sorafenib (79). Theoretically, AHCC may interact with other herbs and supplements with anticancer activity.
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In a case study, AHCC normalized the abnormally low platelet count of a patient with symptomatic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (72).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In animals, AHCC has demonstrated antifungal effects againstopportunistic infections by Candida albicans (8; 5; 9) and in cases of Candida vaginitis (10).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: AHCC has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in cells and animals (11), reportedly comparable to those of sulfasalazine (12). The observed anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC were reported as being additive in rats, when administered in combination with Bifidobacterium longum (BB536), a known gut prebiotic (80; 2).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In hypercholesterolemic prostate cancer patients, AHCC combined with GCP decreased serum cholesterol levels (28). A similar cholesterol-lowering effect has also been seen in breast cancer patients, although statistical significance was lacking compared to controls (81).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In preclinical research, AHCC has been shown to reduce the adverse effects and enhance the antitumor effects of established chemotherapy agents (82; 83), including cisplatin (26; 77), sorafenib (79), GCP (84; 85), and liposomal doxorubicin (i.e., Doxil®) (78; 65). In tumorigenic animals, the chemiluminescent activity of macrophages, NK cells, and neutrophils was increased following the administration of AHCC alone (86) or in combination (57; 87).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In animal research, AHCC suppressed oxidative stress and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (93), as well as normalized serum hormone levels and hepatic oxidative status (13; 14). In vitro, AHCC decreased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production in hepatocytes (94).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: In Trichinella spiralis-infected mice, AHCC alone or in combination with albendazole, a known anthelmintic agent, has been shown to reduce the percentage of parasitic adults on intestinal mucosa (17).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In animals, AHCC demonstrated various antiviral effects, including increased host survival, decreased infection severity, and shortened recovery time, against influenza A (H1N1, PR8) (18; 5; 19), bird flu (H5N1) (20; 21), and West Nile viral infection (23). AHCC also selectively reduced hepatitis C viral RNA in hepatitis patients with genotype 3 (64) and reduced hepatitis B antigen levels when administered in combination with known antiviral agents, such as entecavir, tenofovir, or lamivudine (88).
  • Bifidobacterium longumBifidobacterium longum: In rats, additive anti-inflammatory effects have been observed following the coadministration of AHCC and Bifidobacterium longum (BB536), a known gut prebiotic (80; 2).
  • Cytochrome P450-modifying agentsCytochrome P450-modifying agents: In vitro and ex vivo research in hepatocytes has suggested that AHCC induces the CYP450 2D6 pathway (65; 66). According to study authors, interactions with other agents also metabolized via this enzyme system, such as doxorubicin or ondansetron, are therefore plausible (65; 66).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In mice exposed to acute ischemia-reperfusion injury, AHCC has lowered indices of organ, mucosal, and ischemic injury (31; 32). In mice with intestinal candidiasis, AHCC activated intestinal mucosal immunity (90). In humans, mild, transient, and dose-related symptoms of nausea, diarrhea, and bloating have been reported following the use of AHCC (63; 22; 64).
  • Genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP)Genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP): Combination AHCC and GCP administration in humans has been shown to decrease tail markers of DNA damage (28), lower serum cholesterol levels (28), and mitigate tumor progression (84; 85).
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: In animals, AHCC has demonstrated liver protective effects against 6-MP-, MTX-, LPS-, and CC14-induced liver injury (3; 89; 91; 92). In humans with nonviral liver conditions, AHCC improved (decreased) AST, ALT, and gamma-GT liver function (73).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In human research, AHCC decreased glycosylated hemoglobin and blood sugar levels (42).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In preclinical and clinical research, AHCC modulated immunologic response (46; 47; 45; 48; 49; 50; 5; 7; 18; 23; 51; 52; 53; 24; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 62).
  • Nucleoforce®Nucleoforce®: In weaning calves, the coadministration of AHCC and Nucleoforce® (a nucleotide formula derived from yeast) decreased both the incidence of animals affected by respiratory problems and the total number of respiratory cases seen, compared to nontreated calves (33).
  • Osteoporosis agentsOsteoporosis agents: During the in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration, AHCC has been shown to decrease both NO production and iNOS mRNA expression (29). Theoretically AHCC may interact with osteoporosis agents.
  • SedativesSedatives: In prostate cancer patients with high anxiety, AHCC has been shown to lower anxiety ratings after six months of treatment, as per the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (22).
  • Vitamins and mineralsVitamins and minerals: In tumorigenic animals, combination therapy including AHCC, vitamin supplements, uric acid, and krestin increased the chemiluminescence activity of macrophages and NK cells (57; 87).
  • Weight loss agentsWeight loss agents: According to secondary sources, AHCC has been shown to decrease fat in the peritoneal cavity of Enterococcus faecalis-exposed mice and alter fat metabolism.

AHCC/Food Interactions:
  • Genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP)Genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP): Combination AHCC and GCP administration in humans has been shown to decrease tail markers of DNA damage (28), lower serum cholesterol levels (28), and mitigate tumor progression (84; 85).
  • Bifidobacterium longumBifidobacterium longum: In rats, additive anti-inflammatory effects have been observed following the coadministration of AHCC and Bifidobacterium longum (BB536), a known gut prebiotic (80; 2).

AHCC/Lab Interactions:
  • AlbuminAlbumin: In various types of cancer patients, AHCC has been shown to alter (increase) albumin levels (95; 70).
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In human research, AHCC decreased glycosylated hemoglobin and blood sugar levels (42).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: In a case study, AHCC normalized the abnormally low platelet count of a patient with symptomatic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (72).
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)C-reactive protein (CRP): In patients with pancreatic or biliary tract cancer, AHCC has been shown to reduce CRP levels (70).
  • HemoglobinHemoglobin: In patients with pancreatic or biliary tract cancer, AHCC has been shown to increase hemoglobin levels (70).
  • Immune panelImmune panel: In animal and human research, AHCC increased NK cell, lymphokine active killer (LAK) cell, T cell, B cell, and cytokine activity (45; 47; 49; 50; 5; 7; 18; 23; 51; 52; 53; 24; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 62). In animal research, levels of interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6 may activate early with AHCC supplementation (45). In liver cancer patients, AHCC has also been shown to alter the percentage of lymphocytes (95).
  • LipidsLipids: In hypercholesterolemic prostate cancer patients, AHCC combined with GCP decreased serum cholesterol levels (28). A similar cholesterol-lowering effect has also been seen in breast cancer patients, although statistical significance was lacking compared to control (81).
  • Liver function testsLiver function tests: According to secondary sources and human research, AHCC treatment was also associated with improvements in hepatic enzyme levels, including those of AST, ALT, and gamma-GT (95; 73).
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levelProstate-specific antigen (PSA) level: In a case study of castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, ImmPowerT AHCC mushroom supplement lowered elevated PSA levels (96).

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