Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)
- GlucoseGlucose: In animal research, bilberry leaf extract lowered glycemic levels in diabetic rats, normal dogs, and depancreatized dogs (13; 40; 41), although in healthy rats, an alcoholic extract of Vaccinium myrtillus leaves increased serum glucose levels compared to controls (42). In human research, dietary interventions incorporating bilberry, either alone or coadministered with other food components, demonstrated glucose-lowering effects (43; 44).
- LipidsLipids: In human research, mixed berry-derived anthocyanins and mixed berry-rich diets have been shown to increase plasma concentration of HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol (68; 39), although other human studies have reported a lack of effect on lipid metabolism (51).
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