- AlcoholAlcohol: Study in humans suggested that alcohol consumption decreases plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (50).
- Alpha-tocopherolAlpha-tocopherol: In humans, consumption of a lutein-containing supplement resulted in lower serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (58).
- Beta-caroteneBeta-carotene: Results from various human studies suggest that beta-carotene may reduce or increase bioavailability of lutein (44; 59; 60). Some studies in humans suggest that beta-carotene has no effect on lutein levels (61). When combined, beta-carotene significantly reduced the serum area under the curve value for lutein to 54-61% of control values and lutein reduced the serum area under the curve value for beta-carotene in five subjects, but enhanced it in three subjects (62). In humans supplemented with lutein from two sources for seven days (yellow carrots 1.7mg lutein per day) or an oil-based lutein supplement (1.7mg lutein per day), the peak serum beta-carotene was maintained in the yellow carrot group but not the lutein supplement group (63). In humans, lutein reduced beta-carotene absorption when the two were given simultaneously (64; 65).
- Carotenoids (general)Carotenoids (general): In humans, adding a second carotenoid (pill form) to a meal providing a first carotenoid (food form) reduced absorption of the first carotenoid (66).
- FatFat: Fat in the diet affects bioavailability of lutein esters in humans (70).
- GlucoseGlucose: In humans, postload plasma glucose concentrations decreased significantly as serum lutein/zeaxanthin increased (51).
- Nicotine (tobacco)Nicotine (tobacco): In humans, smokers have lower levels overall of plasma lutein than non-smokers (55; 56).
- StanolsStanols: In humans, plant stanols decreased plasma levels of lutein (75).
- Sucrose polyesterSucrose polyester: Use of a sucrose polyester fat analog by humans reduced plasma concentrations of lutein (76).
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