- AlcoholAlcohol: In human research, moderate consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages (red wine, beer, and spirits) had counteracting effects on plasma antioxidant components but lacked a significant effect on overall antioxidant status (136). In human research, alcohol consumption decreased plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (84).
- Alpha-tocopherolAlpha-tocopherol: In human research, consumption of a lutein-containing supplement decreased intestinal absorption of alpha-tocopherol (92) and lowered serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (93).
- Beta-caroteneBeta-carotene: Results from various human studies suggest that beta-carotene may reduce or increase the bioavailability of lutein (94; 95; 96). Some studies in humans suggest that beta-carotene lacks an effect on lutein levels (163). When combined, beta-carotene significantly reduced the serum area under the curve value for lutein to 54-61% of control values, and lutein reduced the serum area under the curve value for beta-carotene in five subjects but enhanced it in three subjects (97). In humans supplemented with lutein from two sources for seven days (yellow carrots, 1.7mg of lutein daily) or an oil-based lutein supplement (1.7mg of lutein daily), the peak serum beta-carotene was maintained in the yellow carrot group, although this effect was lacking in the lutein supplement group (98). In humans, lutein reduced beta-carotene absorption when the two were given simultaneously (100; 101).
- Carotenoids (general)Carotenoids (general): In humans, adding a second carotenoid (pill form) to a meal providing a first carotenoid (food form) reduced absorption of the first carotenoid (99).
- Cholestyramine resinCholestyramine resin: According to secondary sources, concomitant intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and cholestyramine decreased the absorption of lutein/zeaxanthin.
- ColestipolColestipol: According to secondary sources, concomitant intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and colestipol decreased the absorption of lutein/zeaxanthin.
- GlucoseGlucose: In epidemiological research, postload plasma glucose concentration decreased significantly as serum lutein/zeaxanthin increased (81). Although a relationship between carotenoid intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes was examined, the relationship between lutein intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear (137).
- Mineral oilMineral oil: According to secondary sources, concomitant intake of mineral oil and lutein/zeaxanthin reduced the absorption of lutein/zeaxanthin.
- Nicotine (tobacco)Nicotine (tobacco): In epidemiological research, smokers had lower levels overall of plasma lutein than nonsmokers (90; 91).
- OrlistatOrlistat: According to secondary sources, orlistat decreased the absorption of lutein/zeaxanthin.
- SimvastatinSimvastatin: In individuals with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia, simvastatin therapy reduced the level of carotenoids in the plasma (including lutein); however, after taking into account lipid levels, this effect was in fact reversed (simvastatin increased plasma lutein) (83).
- StanolsStanols: In human research, plant stanols decreased plasma levels of lutein (85).
- SterolsSterols: In human research, plant sterols lowered both serum cholesterol and serum lutein levels; however, this effect may be influenced, in part, by the apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotype (86; 87; 88; 28).
- Sucrose polyesterSucrose polyester: In human research, use of a sucrose polyester fat analog reduced the plasma concentration of lutein (89).
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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.