CNS Stimulants/Nutrient Depletion:
- Beta-caroteneBeta-carotene: Based on human evidence, cigarette smoking may decrease serum concentrations of beta-carotene and other carotenoids, and may deplete body stores of beta-carotene (16541609). Based on a review, oral beta-carotene supplementation should not be recommended in smokers, however, because supplemental beta-carotene may be associated with a higher risk of lung and prostate cancer in smokers (8635686).
- CalciumCalcium: Based on human evidence, caffeine in coffee may increase urinary calcium excretion and has been implicated in osteoporosis (12204390). Research, however, is currently conflicting. According to secondary sources, caffeine may have a small effect on calcium absorption. It may temporarily increase calcium excretion and may modestly decrease calcium absorption, an effect that may be offset by increasing calcium consumption in the diet. One cup of regular brewed coffee may cause a loss of a mere 2-3mg of calcium that may be offset by adding a tablespoon of milk. According to secondary sources, moderate caffeine consumption (one cup of coffee or two cups of tea per day) likely has little to no negative effects on the bones of young women who have adequate calcium intake.
- FolateFolate: Based on human evidence, chronic cigarette smoking may be associated with diminished folate status (14552668).
- LycopeneLycopene: Based on human evidence, conflicting evidence exists regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on lycopene levels (9816105, 8072874, 10203560, 9459370). While not consistent, it appears that lycopene serum concentrations, unlike other carotenoids, may not be influenced by cigarette smoking (8766518, 8558292, 10203560, 8147335, 7603884, 9795972).
- MelatoninMelatonin: It is currently unclear if caffeine alters the effects of melatonin supplements in humans. Caffeine is reported to raise natural melatonin levels in the body (12906366), possibly due to effects on the liver enzyme cytochrome P450 1A2 (9042530). However, caffeine may also alter circadian rhythms in the body, affecting melatonin secretion (9042530).
- ThiaminThiamin: According to secondary sources, tobacco use may decrease thiamin absorption and may lead to decreased levels in the body.
- Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: According to human study, nicotine may modulate serum vitamin B12 levels (1266223, 2053526). The need for vitamin B12 supplementation, however, has not been adequately studied.
- Vitamin C/ascorbic acidVitamin C/ascorbic acid: Based on human evidence, nicotine products such as cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, or nicotine patches may decrease the effects of vitamin C (2913833).
- ZincZinc: Based on animal studies, caffeine may decrease zinc concentrations (1408471).
Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.