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Salatrim

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Also listed as: Benefat
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • BenefatT, salatrim 23CA, short- and long-chain acyl triglyceride molecules, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), stearic acid.

Background
  • Salatrim stands for "short- and long-chain acyl triglyceride molecules". Salatrim is mainly composed of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and stearic acid. SCFAs contain fewer calories per gram than other fats, and the stearic acid in salatrim may be absorbed at a low rate from the gastrointestinal tract. For these reasons, salatrim was proposed as a reduced fat, reduced-calorie, fat replacer. Salatrim contains no trans fats and has five calories per gram. The same amount of fat contains nine calories.
  • Nabisco and the Pfizer Food Science Group licensed salatrim and performed studies in animals and humans to demonstrate its safety. Initially, salatrim served as a replacement for cocoa butter in baking chips and sweets. Salatrim may be used in various products, including baked goods and microwave popcorn. It is not suitable for use as an oil for deep frying because it breaks down at the high temperatures used.
  • The SCFAs and stearic acid in salatrim occur naturally and are thought to be processed by the body in the same way as other fats. For this reason, consuming salatrim is predicted to cause the same feeling of fullness caused by eating other fats.
  • Nabisco sold the rights to salatrim to Cultor, which currently markets the substance under the name of BenefatT.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Salatrim is used as a low-calorie fat substitute. Limited study suggests that salatrim may increase a feeling of fullness and decrease hunger. More well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

B
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory




    Dosing

    Adults (18 years and older)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for salatrim in adults.

    Children (under 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for salatrim in children.

    Safety

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

    Allergies

    • Insufficient available evidence.

    Side Effects and Warnings

    • Salatrim is possibly safe when used in amounts found in foods. Salatrim is listed on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list. However, some experts suggest that salatrim and other fat substitutes may be unsafe.
    • Use cautiously in patients with liver disease, as salatrim in high amounts has been shown to increase plasma serum liver enzymes.
    • Salatrim may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.

    Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

    Interactions

    Interactions with Drugs

    • Insufficient available evidence.

    Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Insufficient available evidence.

    Attribution
    • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

    Bibliography
    1. Finley JW, Leveille GA, Dixon RM, et al. Clinical Assessment of SALATRIM, a reduced-calorie triacylglycerol. J Agric Food Chem 1994;42(2):581-596.
    2. French S. Effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on appetite vary depending upon site and structure. Br J Nutr 2004;92 Suppl 1:S23-S26.
    3. Henry J. Processing, manufacturing, uses and labelling of fats in the food supply. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;55(1-3):273-300.
    4. Jang Y, Han JJ, Kwon SJ, et al. Low-calorie structured lipid synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Ann NY Acad Sci 1998;864:313-317.
    5. Jasper JP. GC-FID- and acyl carbon number-based determination of characteristic groupings of complex triglyceride (Benefat S and other) mixtures. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(3):785-791.
    6. Krotkiewski M. Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25(9):1393-1400.
    7. Livesey G. The absorption of stearic acid from triacylglycerols: an inquiry and analysis. Nutr Res Rev 2000;13(2):185-214.
    8. McLaughlin J, Grazia Lucą M, Jones MN, et al. Fatty acid chain length determines cholecystokinin secretion and effect on human gastric motility. Gastroenterology 1999;116(1):46-53.
    9. Migrenne S, Magnan C, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C. Fatty acid sensing and nervous control of energy homeostasis. Diabetes Metab 2007;33(3):177-182.
    10. Peikin SR. Role of cholecystokinin in the control of food intake. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1989;18(4):757-775.
    11. Sorensen LB, Cueto HT, Andersen MT, et al. The effect of salatrim, a low-calorie modified triacylglycerol, on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(5):1163-1169.
    12. Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG. Covert manipulation of the ratio of medium- to long-chain triglycerides in isoenergetically dense diets: effect on food intake in ad libitum feeding men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20(5):435-444.
    13. Tuomasjukka S, Viitanen M, Kallio H. Stearic acid is well absorbed from short- and long-acyl-chain triacylglycerol in an acute test meal. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(12):1352-1358.
    14. Van Wymelbeke V, Himaya A, Louis-Sylvestre J, et al. Influence of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on the control of food intake in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2):226-234.
    15. Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M. Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74(5):620-630.

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    The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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